Veterinary Medicine

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 112
  • Item
    Occurrence of extended –spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae and bacterial loads in dust from poultry farms in Lusaka-Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2023) Basikolo, Linda
    Poultry houses accommodate substantial amounts of microorganisms which are carried by the dust present in these premises and the effects of this dust on humans and animal health is detrimental when inhaled. Extended Spectrum beta lactamases are a universal public health alarm which are frequently identified in humans and animals including poultry. Poultry dust is a possible source of drug resistant microorganisms including Extended spectrum beta lactamases which confer antimicrobial resistance to different classes of antimicrobials including beta lactam, cephalosporins and fruoloquinolones. The concentration of microorganisms in dust from poultry houses in Lusaka-Zambia is not known and in order to know the risks for birds, environment and people working in these houses, it is important to have information on the microbial composition of this dust, therefore, this study is conducted to determine poultry dust bacterial composition in farms in Lusaka, Zambia. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection approach was conducted in Kafue, Lusaka and Chongwe districts of Lusaka province where 351 dust samples from intensive poultry production were collected from 29 poultry farms (10 kafue,12 Lusaka and 7 Chongwe). 4 farms were for indigenous chickens, 15 layer farms and 10 broiler farms. They were analyzed for total viable bacteria counts (cfu/g), the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriacea, antimicrobial resistance for ESBL-E isolates. The association between the sociodemographic issues and the occurrence of the pathogens in dust from poultry houses in Lusaka- Zambia was also determined. The total viable bacterial counts was 2.599 x108 cfu/g. For Enterobacteriaceae was 2.296x108 cfu/g. 62 Positive ESBL samples occurred in 16 farms (n=29) where ESBL samples was 4.842x104cfu/g. E.Coli showed highest resistant rate amongst other isolates. All ESBL- E isolates showed 100% resistance rate to penicillin followed by 56.5% for cefotaxime and 48.4% for ciprofloxacin. There was no association between the sociodemographic issues and the occurrence of the pathogens in dust from poultry houses. The results obtained would help that ensures poultry farms comply to safety rules by providing protective clothing for their workers and also close monitoring of antibiotic usage to poultry to avoid dust transmitted antimicrobial organisms to humans, animals and the environment.
  • Item
    The risk of exposure to aflatoxins through consumption of nshima made from maize meal in selected areas of Lusaka district.
    (The University of Zambia, 2023) Musonda, Mumba
    Maize and its products, such as maize meal, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Maize is the staple crop of Zambia and is widely consumed as thick porridge, commonly called nshima. Previous studies have reported high levels of AFs in maize produced in Zambia. However, no study has determined the risk of exposure to AFs through the consumption of maize nshima. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the risk of exposure to aflatoxins through the consumption of maize nshima in households in the Lusaka District. A questionnaire was administered to households to investigate dietary consumption patterns and revealed that most Zambians consumed nshima twice a day, prepared from either breakfast or roller maize meal. It was also noted that males aged 18 years and above consumed more nshima per day (360 – 980g) than children and female adults. The Zambia Bureau of Standards Laboratory recorded aflatoxin concentrations ranging from 0.2 μg/kg to 150 μg/kg in breakfast (flour from polished maize grain) and roller (flour from whole maize grain) meal samples from 2019-2022. This was used as secondary data for determining the risk of exposure to aflatoxins during this study. The risk of exposure was estimated using the Model Risk Software® using the estimated daily intake of maize nshima and secondary aflatoxin data as input parameters. The maximum exposure of 80.2 to aflatoxins was highest for the males compared to other age groups. The risk was further characterized using the margin of exposure (MOE). The MOE was < 10000 for age categories, thus indicating potential adverse health effects, with the highest MOE of 0.005 recorded for the males. The high levels of AFs in maize meal and high exposures accentuate the need for preventive measures. Particular attention should be given to raising awareness of the impact of aflatoxin risk exposure and setting maximum allowable limits in maize meal considering maize product consumption patterns in Zambia
  • Item
    Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasma gondii infection among goats from Choma district, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2023) Zimba, Chiluba
    Toxoplasmosis is a disease of economic importance and of public health significance. Despite being a zoonotic disease, information on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in goats has not yet been reported in Zambia. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in goats was carried out from 31st August to 5th September, 2021 in eight veterinary camps of Choma district, Southern Province, Zambia. A closed-ended questionnaire was also administered to forty one farmers whose goats were included in the study to identify potential risk factors for T. gondii infections in goats. Three hundred and twenty-four goat sera were examined for IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA kit. All factors attributing to T. gondii infection in goats were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression analysis. The serological results showed an overall seroprevalence of 3.11% (95% CI: 2.71-9.43). Female goats had a seroprevalence of 4.13% (95% CI: 3.55-13.61: p =0.001), while all the males were negative. According to age, adults had a seroprevalence of 4.00% (95% CI: 3.16-13.23: p =0.001) than the young 1.01% (95% CI: 0.09-10.63). The significant risk factors were presence of stray cats within the farm yards (aOR: 5.092, 95% CI: 2.442-16.376: p =0.033), cats access to water and feed troughs (aOR: 2.806, 95% CI: 1.002-11.528: p =0.041) and presence of cat feaces within the farm yards (aOR: 0.042: 95% CI: 0.010-0.761: p =0.029). The detection of T. gondii infection among goats indicates a potential risk presented to humans from food animals. This further highlighted the impact of T. gondii infection on the health, production and reproduction of goats and other ruminants.
  • Item
    Detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at the university teaching hospitals, Lusaka, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2021) Mwenda, Milner Malambo
    The pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is attributed to development of antimicrobial resistance and production of many virulence factors. Several genes are implicated in resistance to antimicrobials and virulence factors. This study was aimed at investigating the presence of selected antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in S. aureus isolated from clinical samples at the University Teaching Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. This was a cross-sectional study involving forty-three (43) S. aureus isolates. Species identification gene (nuc), antimicrobial resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mecA, tetK tetL, tetM, and tetO) and virulence genes (spa, pvl, sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) were detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction. The nuc gene was detected in all the 43 isolates thereby confirming them as S. aureus. Of the 43 isolates, 14 (32.6%) were from blood samples while 29 (67.4%) were from skin and soft tissue samples. Five (11.6%) S. aureus isolates harboured the mecA gene (MRSA). Nine (20.9%) isolates tested positive for ermC gene while none were positive for neither ermA nor ermB. The tetK and tetL genes were detected in 3 (7.0%) and 1 (2.3%) isolates, respectively. None of the isolates tested positive for tetM, and tetO genes. One spa type t015 was detected in two isolates whereas the spa types for five isolates were unknown. Five (11.6%) isolates tested positive for sec enterotoxin gene. None of the 43 isolates possessed any of the sea, seb, sed and see enterotoxin genes as well as the pvl gene. Two (22.2%) of ermC positive isolates harboured enterotoxin sec gene. This study adds to existing knowledge by giving insight into the presence of mecA gene (MRSA) among S. aureus isolates as well as noting the presence of one MRSA strain that harboured both tet (tetK) and macrolide resistance (ermC) genes which poses a significant therapeutic challenge in disease management of staphylococcal infections in resource limited countries like Zambia. Furthermore, the carriage of staphylococcal enterotoxin S. aureus strains suggests a high potential of staphylococcal food poisoning at the largest referral hospital. This study has demonstrated the need to develop an efficient control programme to curb the transmission and spread of antimicrobial resistant particularly multi-antimicrobial resistant and food toxin producing S. aureus strains at the largest referral hospital.
  • Item
    Lead contamination and human health risk assessment through consumption of cow milk in Kabwe, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2022) Zyambo, Golden
    Lead (Pb) contamination in the vicinity of lead mines and smelters affects both humans and animals. Chronic exposure to Pb via dietary intake of animal products such as milk from contaminated areas poses a health risk to consumers. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the human health risk impact of Pb exposure through consumption of cow milk as well as to assess the seasonal variations of Pb concentrations in cow milk and blood of lactating cows in Kabwe, which has a long history of lead-zinc mine in Zambia. The cow milk and blood samples were collected from traditional smallholder, emerging smallholder and medium-sized dairy farms located in Kang’omba, Mukobeko, Mpima, Munga, and Kafulamase of Kabwe during the wet and dry seasons. The Pb metal concentrations were determined using Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS) after samples were acid digested in a microwave-optimized system. Cow milk and blood lead levels (BLLs) showed seasonal significant differences at p = 0.05 using Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Test (DMCT, p < 0.05). The mean Pb metal level obtained in cow milk during the wet season ranged from 0.98 (± 0.30) to 2.32 (± 1.87) μg/kg while in the dry season the mean concentrations varied from 0.50 (± 0.24) to 4.24 (± 2.24) μg/kg. Similarly, the mean blood Pb concentrations ranged from 3.84 (± 3.22) to 21.8 (± 15.9) μg/kg in the wet season while in the dry season the mean ranged from 0.55 (± 0.24) to 23.8 (± 18.6) μg/kg. Of all the cow's blood samples analysed, 27% and 60% in Kang’omba and Munga respectively, exceeded the baseline value of 20 μg/kg. A higher concentration percentage of 37% in Kang’omba was recorded in the dry season while in Munga it remained unchanged at 60% in the wet season. Notably, the factors that influenced different Pb concentration patterns were the season, distance, and location of the farms from the Pb–Zn mine. The overall mean Pb concentration, chronic daily intake (CDIs), target hazard quotients (THQs), and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) results obtained were all below the maximum permissible limits of 20 g/kg, 3 and 12.5 g/kg-BW/day (for children and adults), 1 and 1.0 x 10-4 to 1.0 x 10-6, recommended by FAO/WHO, the joint FAO/WHO, FDA and USEPA respectively. In conclusion, although the study showed that Pb was present in all Kabwe studied regions, the health risk effects of Pb exposure associated with the consumption of milk in both adults and children were insignificant.