Antiviral potential of hadjod (Cissus quadrangularis) extract against newcastle disease virus.

Thumbnail Image
Machamacha, Alberto Filipe
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
The University of Zambia
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease that has a devastating global impact on the poultry industry. Ethanol (EtOH) crude extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis (CQL) was prepared and tested against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) replication using an in- ovo assay in embryonic chickens. Cissus quadrangularis L, is a perennial plant of the Vitaceae family, with high in active ingredients that have been proved to act against a variety of diseases and disorders. The study aimed to evaluate the antiviral activity of crude extracts of C. quadrangularis against NDV. Nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into ten groups (n=10) and received various treatments. Six groups were inoculated with Velogenic NDV (vNDV) isolate AF2 and used for testing antiviral efficacy. Five groups of ten (10) were treated with different concentrations of the working stock extracts solution. The phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, and glycosides were revealed in stem crude extract in the phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity studies, on the other hand, showed that embryonated eggs could tolerate the all-plant extract at concentrations of 100 mg/mL. Highest chick embryo mortality (73.7%) was observed in the control group (virus only) and lower (11%) in the high extract concentration (75 mg/mL). The tested extract exhibited in ovo antiviral activity against NDV, showing viral titre reduction at a range of 1:64 in the haemagglutination test, indicating 4-times viral load decline compared with untreated embryo (positive control; 1:512) The current findings have clearly demonstrated that the crude EtOH extract from stem of CQL has strong antiviral activity against NDV in ovo. The mortality was lower when the extract was applied and antiviral significant statistical efficacy was observed. In order to further validate the efficacy of the plant extract as anti-NDV, an in vivo study using live chickens and use of standard for fractionations to isolate individual constitutes are recommended. Keywords : Antiviral Activity, Newcastle disease, Crude extract, Cissus quadrangularis
Viruses -- Newcastle Disease , Antiviral Potential -- Hadjod , Cissus Quadrangularis