Development of an excreta pathway for Kanyama peri-urban area of Lusaka using the shit flow diagram (SFD) tool.

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Musonda, Kennedy Chongo
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The University of Zambia.
It is estimated that 70 percent of Lusaka’s 2 million population live in peri-urban areas and 90 percent of whom rely on onsite sanitation (OSS) systems which are in poor condition. The rapid population growth in these unplanned settlements coupled with poor sanitation conditions has resulted in severe exposure of the public and the environment to faecal contamination leading to the regular outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid. In addition, 57 percent of Lusaka water supply is from groundwater resources (boreholes) which are dotted within the city and are prone to faecal contamination due to the existence of OSS systems with poor management of sludge that accumulates in the onsite containment technologies. Kanyama compound is one of the Peri-Urban Areas (PUAs) in Zambia’s Capital City, Lusaka. The area represents one of the selected priority project areas for improvement of OSS and Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) under the Lusaka Sanitation Programme (LSP). This research was aimed at producing an Excreta Flow Diagram (Excreta Pathway) and analysis of OSS and FSM services for Kanyama PUA of Lusaka which is one of the most informal settlement areas hit by poor sanitation in Lusaka. The research also looked at the national legislation and institutional framework on OSS as applied in Kanyama. This research provided a good understanding of a local level comprehensive SFD. Comprehensive sanitation surveys and mapping exercises were done by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) through its Climate Friendly Sanitation in Peri-Urban Areas of Lusaka (CFS) Project for Kanyama. Primary data collected was reviewed collecting missing data and secondary data were used to produce the Excreta Flow Diagram. The mapping exercise and surveys conducted in Kanyama were instrumental in understanding the types of sanitation systems in Kanyama and the percent of the population using such systems which greatly informed this study. Developing the comprehensive SFD for Kanyama area required the use of the sanitation surveys and collecting primary and secondary data using the defined methodology prescribed in the SFD manual. This research demonstrated the gaps that exist in the national legislation on OSS as well as describing efforts being done to reduce the gap. The revisions on the existing legislation include provisions on OSS and FSM. Out of the 170,000 sampled population in Kanyama area, only 1% of the generated faecal sludge was safely managed and rely on 100 percent OSS. The Excreta Pathway produced, gives the status of excreta from Containment to Treatment highlighting the percentages of safely managed and unsafely managed excreta. This research demonstrated the inadequacy of FSM (containment systems, pit emptying, Transportation, treatment) services in Kanyama posing a high risk to groundwater and other environmental concerns. This study recommends interventions from all stakeholders in order to change the picture in Kanyama by supporting the community in the construction of sanitation facilities, improving the drainage systems, and support small scale community lead workings such as Kanyama Water Trust that could focus on sanitation more. Improving the enforcement of legislation as well as revising the laws on sanitation to include OSS and FSM.
Thesis of Master Of Engineering In Water Resources Engineering.