School managers, teachers, and pupils' opinions of effective teachers in selected high schools of Lusaka urban district.

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Mutale, Harriet
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This study investigated school managers, teachers, and pupils' opinions of effective teachers in selected high schools of Lusaka urban district. Random sampling was used to select the seven high schools. Data was collected using questionnaires,semistructured interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. The data collected were both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data was analyzed using a computer programme called excel to generate percentages. Qualitative data was analyzed by coding and grouping the emerging themes into categories.The study specifically examined the following research questions; 1. What were school managers and pupils' opinions of effective teachers? 2. How did school managers and pupils differentiate between effective and noneffective teachers 3. What were school managers' ideas about classroom management of effective teachers? 4. Were teachers able to identify effective teachers among themselves?The findings of the study revealed that effective teachers taught well and produced the best results in schools. They were sharp (intelligent), well qualified and were role models. They were punctual for work, attended to all their classes and did not waste their time chatting.According to the study, both male and female teachers were effective, the question of gender did not affect them. Age did affect teacher effectiveness but there was also some evidence that in each age group there were effective and non-effective teachers. While experience generally helped to make some teachers more effective, to some extent it made others relax in their teaching as they thought that they knew everything about teaching. On the methods of teaching, the study established that a combination of teacher and child-centred methods promoted effective teaching. However, pupils felt that the explanation method (where a teacher spends time expanding on points or giving details on the topic) was more effective than any other. The study, in addition,found that the school climate contributed to teacher effectiveness but as far as pupils were concerned, it did not. The study also revealed the following characteristics in effective teachers: hard-work,self disciplined, consistent behaviour, co-cooperativeness, willingness to learn from others, encouragement and helpful.The study further found that activities that encouraged effectiveness in class included preparation of lessons, organization of the individual lesson, time management,adequate class control, demonstration of knowledge of material while teaching, as well as willingness to guide the pupils.The findings of the study on the characteristics of the bad teacher were that, he or she failed to communicate in class, told stories or kept revising the work done earlier,reported late to school, failed to prepare the lessons and was generally lazy. The bad teacher also used abusive language, was hot tempered and had favourites among pupils.The study concluded that, whether one was teaching in a government, mission or private school, his or her effectiveness had a lot to do with all the conditions that influence teaching as well as characteristics or traits of that particular individual, and these were further influenced by the opinions that the community attached to this noble profession as shown in the study.School managers, teachers and pupils' opinions of effective teachers were in many respects similar and were based on what they had seen and experienced when they interacted with different teachers at any given time. The study makes the recommendation that opinions about who a good and a bad teacher is must be taken seriously because they serve as standards if not criteria for rating teachers for their own professional growth. The point is that opinions are double edged. They can enthuse and they can reprimand teachers.
Effective teachers.