Prisons and Education provision in Zambia: A historical perspective,1964-2011

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Chilimboyi, Edwin
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The University of Zambia
The central theme of this study revolves around the system of correctional education provision in Zambian prisons and the process of rehabilitation and reformation of the prison inmates between 1964 and 2011. The study investigates the origin and development of correctional education. The study uses the qualitative method. It traces prison education from the colonial period, when elementary education was introduced to prisoners in Northern Rhodesia. Special attention was given to whites only while non-whites were denied the opportunity to access basic prison education in the initial stage. The focus of prison education was reading accompanied by recreational activities. However, from 1974 prison education was re-shaped into correctional education. Correctional education was largely responsible for changing offenders’ behaviour as it addressed particular social and psychological factors associated with imprisonment. The study also explains the nature of the correctional education that was given to the inmates in the Zambian prison system between 1964 and 2011. Academic and vocational education were offered as well as political, spiritual, moral and other types of education. Furthermore, the study establishes the challenges which hindered the development of correctional education in Zambia from independence to 2011. The challenges included inadequate and erratic funding, lack of coordination between Zambia Prisons Service (ZPS) and the community, lack of planned human resource development and lack of policy direction for correctional education. Such challenges hindered effective provision of correctional education to inmates. The study evaluates the impact of correctional education on the prisoners and ex-prisoners. It shows how correctional education helped change offenders into law abiding citizens through economic, social and political results essential to farming, business and religious work. This, to some extent, reduced recidivism among prisoners in the country. The study concludes that overall, correctional education had a positive impact on the inmates. The behaviour of most of the ex-prisoners changed due to the education they received in prison. Most of them became economically independent and prosperous individuals who added value to their families, communities and society in general. The study covers the period from 1964 to 2011 that spanned the reign of two governments, the United National Independence Party (UNIP) from 1964 to 1991 and the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) from 1991 to 2011.
Prisoners--Services for--Zambia , Prisoners--Vocational education--Zambia , Zambia. Department of Correctional Education , Prisoners--Education--Zambia--Evaluation.