Land tenure in informal settlements: implications on participatory upgrading of Kalikiliki settlement in Lusaka.

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Chileshe, Leah, Chiti
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The University of Zambia
This study sought to examine the implications of land tenure on participatory settlement upgrading. The key objectives of the research were: to examine the tenure arrangements that guide the access to and the use of land in Kalikiliki; to assess the factors that influence willingness to participate in settlement upgrading in Kalikiliki and to identify and explore the implications for policy change of tenure systems in Kalikiliki. The research used both primary and secondary data. The sample size for the research was 70 for the heads of households, information was obtained from three key institutions, namely the local council-Lusaka City Council (LCC), the Lusaka provincial planning office, and from the Non-Government organisation, People‘s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia (PPHPZ). The data was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative means. The study revealed that most of the residents in the settlement are tenants. The findings indicate that only 4.48%, of the respondents were tenants who had signed a contract with the landlord, 15% were landlords (owners of the structure in which they live), while 59.70% were tenants who had no contracts. Among the 59.70 %, 20% were tenants who shared one housing unit with the landlord. The results also show that 13.43% of the tenants were subletting. Results from the qualitative evidence collected through interviews and the focus group discussion that was held show there is compelling evidence that gender has an impact on participatory settlement upgrading. The results also indicate that the longer one lived in the settlements the stronger the connection to the settlement. This has a strong behavioural implication on the level of participation. It can be concluded from the study that three factors seem to affect participation: gender, greater connection to place through length of stay and possible fear of eviction, while tenure seemed to have a limited impact on the levels of participation. The relationship between tenure and participation is quite poor. However, a strong relationship exists between length of stay that confers a feeling of ownership and a sense of place and willingness to participate. On the other hand, the study revealed that the perceived probability of eviction reduces willingness to participate in settlement upgrading. There is a need, therefore, to design land developmental processes that are empowering in nature. Local residents must be put at the centre of all processes to help reduce uncertainty, anxiety and hence to promote participation by city dwellers with the right to live in the city. Key words: land tenure participatory settlement upgrading, informal settlements
Land tenure--Zambia