Teachers’ implementation of the text based integrated approach (tbia) to grade 11 pupils in teaching English in selected secondary schools in Luanshya

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Mumba, Cyprian
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The University of Zambia
English language is a compulsory subject in Zambia from Grades Five to Grade Twelve. Therefore, it is vital that learners are equipped with the necessary skills to improve their communicative competence. The purpose of this study was to establish teachers’ application of the Text-based Integrated Approach in the teaching of English language to Grade Eleven pupils in selected secondary schools of Luanshya District. The objectives of the study were to ascertain: (i) teachers’ understanding of the Text-based Integrated Approach, (ii) the teachers’ classroom application of the Text-based Integrated Approach, (iii) whether teachers were adequately trained to use the Text-based Integrated Approach, (iv) teachers’ attitudes towards the Text-based Integrated Approach and the challenges teachers faced when using the Text-based Integrated Approach. The study employed a congruent parallel mixed method design which incorporates both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Interview guide, document analysis, lesson observation guide and the questionnaire were the data collection instruments used in the study. A sample of 54 respondents comprising 45 qualified teachers of English language and nine Heads of Departments participated in the study. The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and were merged into common themes according to the research objectives. The findings of the first and second objectives showed that despite teachers affirming that they understood and applied the Text-based Integrated Approach in their teaching during face to face interviews, quantitative findings revealed that only 59% of the participants understood the approach, 28% held misconceptions about the approach and 13% bluntly stated that they did not have a slight idea about the method. Further, through the teachers’ responses in the questionnaire and the interviews, teachers had limited knowledge about what approaches the syllabus recommended for the teaching of English language at senior secondary school level. Classroom lesson observations data showed that teachers were not implementing the Text-based Integrated Approach as stipulated in the syllabus. The findings of the third objective revealed that some teachers were adequately trained as lecturers from various learning institutions prepared them well in the use of TBIA. However, other teachers stated that they were inadequately prepared as lecturers merely mentioned the methods and did not go into details to elaborate how to apply the Text-based Integrated Approach. In addition, findings of the fourth objective showed that some teachers had positive attitudes towards the Text-based Integrated Approach, while others had negative attitudes. The findings of the last objective revealed a number of challenges such as lack of teaching materials, poor foundation in English language, low reading levels and lack of pupils’ self-motivation to learn. In view of the findings, it is recommended that the Ministry of General Education should organize formal and comprehensive in-service training for teachers on how to apply the Text-based Integrated Approach. Further, there should be close collaboration between the Ministry of General Education and higher learning institutions to ensure that teachers are adequately trained to apply the recommended methodologies such as the Text-based Integrated Approach. Keywords: Text based integrated approach, Syllabus, Communicative competence, English, Zambia, Teachers, Understanding, Application, Luanshya
English competence--Study and teaching--Zambia , English language--Communicative competence