The effectiveness of communication for better hygiene in markets: a case of Kalingalinga market.

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Nkonde, Nancy
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The University of Zambia
Hygiene is as important element to every individual and the society at large. Specifically, market hygiene has been a major concern for most markets in the world. This is as a result of poor water supply, poor drainage systems, and poor sanitation facilities such as toilets and poor garbage disposal. The standards of hygiene at the market are often low, a cause of concern for the municipal authorities. Despite some studies have been conducted on how best the municipal authorities can improve their services, the conditions in the markets keep deteriorating. Over the years’ markets in Zambia have been experiencing hygiene and sanitation problems for a very long time. Kalingalinga market is one of the markets that has been experiencing the same problem. The area has drainage problems, poor water supply, heaps of litter near where the traders sell food stuffs and has poor toilet facilities. This has been an ongoing problem for a long time now. Despite various efforts by government and other stakeholders, the market still experiences these problems. It is for this reason that this research aimed to establish the current levels of communication about better hygiene at the market in order to solve this problem. Communication is an exchange of information or passing of information, ideas or thought from one person to the other or from one end to the other is communication. According to McFarland communication is, “a process of meaningful interaction among human beings (1994:56. In order for communication to be effective, the messages conveyed must be understood by the all the parties (sender and receiver) in the communication, assign similar meanings to the message and listen carefully. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effectiveness of communication conveyed by the council. The study sought to examine the effectiveness of communication for better hygiene in Kalingalinga market. Specifically, the research sought to assess the current communication messages to promote better hygiene, and garbage disposal at Kalingalinga market. The study further sought to examine the communication channels used to achieve better hygiene at Kalingalinga market and find out the language used by the council to communicate with marketeers about better hygiene practices. This researcher used the descriptive and exploratory designs. The descriptive design involved obtaining in depth understanding of how communication can be used to improve hygiene in Kalingalinga market. The explanatory design was used to analyse a cause-effect relationship because it was a small research that meant to explore this area. To analyse data, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excel were used. The data was presented in form of figures and tables. Findings of the study revealed that the council use English to educate the marketeers about good hygiene practices as opposed to vernacular that they can understand. The common local language used in the market is Nyanja and Bemba. The study also revealed that majority of the marketeers did not complete Grade 12. About 1.1% went up to Grade 7, 52.8% went up to Grade 9, 32.6% completed Grade 12. Then only 2.2% are diploma holders who are able to understand English as a medium of communication which is used by the council to communicate to the marketeers. So 1.1% of Grade 7s plus 52.8% of Grade 9s comes to 53.9%. This percentage is the majority of the marketeers that do not understand English. The researcher has recommended the council to use local languages to communicate effectively to the marketeers. It should also partner with churches in Kalingalinga to educate the community about the importance of hygiene in the market as well as use shows and drama to disseminate the messages so that people can understand effectively. Furthermore, the council should enhance their maintenance and construction of proper markets with toilets and development of a good drainage system. And also ensure that the garbage collection is collected at the same frequency as not doing so is resulting in garbage pilling up in markets and increasing the chances of having another pandemic.
Thesis of Master of Communication for Development.