Primary school teachers’ attitudes towards ICTs integration in social studies: a study of Lusaka and Katete districts

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Lufungulo, Enala Sharon
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The University of Zambia
The thrust of the study was to find out primary school teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of ICTs in the teaching and learning of SS. The study targeted schools piloting the e-learning programme with iSchool in Lusaka and Impact Network in Katete district of Zambia. The study was guided by the theory of Diffusion of Innovation which is one of the most referred to theories in studies related to ICT integration in education. Rogers (2003) in his theory emphasises that the adopter’s attitude is a crucial factor for adoption of a new technological innovation. Thus teachers’ attitudes are responsible for the success or failure of a new innovation in education. The study used a multiple case study design because as Yin (2009) points out, multiple case designs are likely to produce robust results as compared to single case studies. Data was collected by interviews with head teachers and teachers, focused group interviews with pupils and observations of the lessons. Data was analysed using cross case and thematic analysis methods. The findings compared and contrasted within and between cases suggested that, the most widely used ICT tools in the schools piloting the e-learning programme were Ipads, laptops, speakers, ear phone and projectors used during the audio visual lessons. Findings also revealed that primary school teachers in Lusaka and Katete held positive views towards the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of SS. This was mainly attributed to the training they had undergone with iSchool and Impact Network on the usage of ICTs. Although the schools are located in different spatial dimensions, the urban and rural setup, the teachers’ attitudes were positive. Furthermore, teachers across the schools regarded ICT as advantageous over traditional methods of instruction and as suitable for the curriculum. Although the ICTs were available in the schools, they were not adequate to the extent that each pupil could have had one and use at the same time in the classroom. Thus the teachers called on the MESVTEE to subsidize the purchase of ICT tool and resources, as this would benefit both the pupils and teachers. The study recommends that the MESVTEE should enact the ICT draft policy to guide schools and stakeholders on the Ministry’s official position regarding the integration of ICTs in education. Further, the MESVTEE should closely monitor pilot projects in schools to ensure quality. For further research, the study recommends that scholars in the field of Social Studies should explore in detail benefits and challenges of incorporating ICTs in the subject area and also examine consequences of Ipads and Computer screens on the sight of teachers and pupils.
ICT--Study and teaching--Zambia , Education, Primary--Zambia