Colonialism and the cattle industry in Namwala district: A study of the impact of the policies of taxation and cattle marketing on the ila, 1900-1964

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Kandyata, Oliver Himakanta
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This study is an attempt to assess the impact of colonial rule on the traditional cattle economy of the Ila in Southern Province of Zambia during the period of the colonial rule, 1900 to 1964.The Ila or Baila of Namwala District have had a long tradition of cattle rearing. In the pre-colonial period cattle rearing attracted raids on the Ila by the Kololo, Ndebele and the Lozi. Throughout the colonial and post colonial periods cattle rearing has been the principal cash earning sector of the economy. Free from tsetse fly the Kafue river with its wide plain have been of ' crucial importance to the cattle ownership in Namwala.The Ila were integrated to the colonial economy through the policy of taxation. With taxation, cattle rearing became the principal cash earning sector of the economy. Cattle were sold to meet tax obligations and to buy other newly introduced items.Non-cattle owning men from Namwala began to migrate in search of ' wage employment.Although cattle rearing has been the principal cash earning sector of the economy, the volume of cattle sold for commercial purposes has remained small. Like many other traditional cattle owners, the Ila have been criticized for their alleged reluctance to sell their cattle. This dissertation attempts to investigate the limiting factors of tsetse fly, maize cultivation,poor grazing methods, traditional cattle slaughterings and many other factors that have had an adverse impact on the cattle population in Namwala. Our basic aim is to provide some historical analysis of the Ila cattle industry during the colonial era. While we focus on factors that have limited the expansion of the cattle industry,we have also argued that the colonial government through the Veterinary and Game and Tsetse Control Departments carried out appropriate measures that were intended to contain cattle diseases and prevent the spread of tsetse fly with its bovine trypanosomiasis. We have also argued that poor traditional cattle management techniques, social and cultural attitudes of the cattle owners have played an important role in reducing cattle sales among the Ila. For instance, many cattle owners still value their cattle in social and ritual contexts thereby reducing cattle sold for commercial purposes.
Cattle - -Marketing- -Law and legislation- -Namwala District- -Zambia , Cattle- -Taxation- -Zambia- - Namwala District- -Zambia