Characterisation of the Mycoplasm mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony from Kazungula District of Zambia,a Contagious Bovine Pleuropnueumonia Outbreak Area

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Munkombwe, Muuka Geoffrey
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This study was conducted to characterise the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MwmSC) variant in the Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP)new outbreak area of Kazungula District of Southern Province of Zambia. Kazungula is the southern most in Southern province and borders the Western Province, a known CBPP endemic area. During the study it was observed that 186 cattle (23.3%, CI 20.5 to 26.5) out of 797 examined at the farms showed overt clinical signs of CBPP. Samples were collected from carcases showing pathognomonic lesions of CBPP at slaughter of the observed 186 animalswhich were arbitrally categorised in to onset, acute and chronic depending on the predominating lesions seen onpost-mortem. Using this type of categorisation, 19 (36.5%, CI 24.0 to 51.1%), 11 (21.3%, CI 11.6 to 35.1) and 22 (42.3%, CI 29.0 to 56.7) of onset, acute and chronic lesions respectively were observed. A total of 80 samples were collected from the main study area using the purposive sampling design. Additionally, 10 samples using the same method were collected from Western and North-western Provinces for comparative purposes on the results obtained. It was demonstrated during the study that Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony {MmmSC) could be isolated from the pathological tissues using the PPLO conventional media containing Horse serum and the non conventional media containing donkey blood agar. The isolated colonies were confirmed to be MmmSC using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility of the studied isolates generally showed that the MmmSC were susceptible to growth inhibition effects of nitrofurantoin,tetracycline, gentamycin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole and tylosin except one from Kazungula district which resisted all the antibiotic effects other than that of tylosin. The isolates were further characterised using Restriction Enzyme Analysis (REA) and the isolates studied did not show any polymorphic differences and a conclusion inferred that the MmmSC causing CBPP in the study area could have a common originality. Furthermore, the study confirmed that the disease outbreak was from Western Province as isolates from Western and Southern Provinces were similar apart from one isolate from Kazungula which showed antibiotic resistance to the antibiotics studied except tylosin.
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia