An evaluation of tourism sector participation in the Livingstone city integrated development plan 2005- 2010, Zambia.

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Zulu, Maxwell
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The University of Zambia
Integrated development planning is a process that requires the involvement of stakeholders in determining the strategic development priorities to their development needs. Stakeholder participation is an instrument used meeting citizen’s development needs when they influence and share control over their development. Besides, stakeholder participation provides opportunities for stakeholders to have access to decision-making processes that inform and shape the formulation and implementation of integrated development plans (IDPs). Stakeholder participation is one of the fundamental principles in the formulation and implementation of IDPs.The first City of Livingstone IDP was a five-year plan targeted for implementation between 2005 and 2010. The plan’s strategic focus was tourism development and stakeholder participation from the tourism sector was key in the development of the IDP because of the tourism focus of the IDP. Their engagement was perceived to be cardinal in shaping the Livingstone City IDP and its implementation, which in the long run, influence the promotion of tourism in the City of Livingstone.This study aimed at assessing the extent to which stakeholders in the tourism sector in the City of Livingstone influenced the formulation and implementation of the Livingstone City IDP. The study utilised a case study method which focused more on qualitative data generated from interviews and observations. The sampling approach of the respondent was purposive sampling, and 27 respondents were interviewed. The collected data were analysed qualitatively using themes that emerged from the responses in the field research.The findings revealed that the key stakeholders in the tourism industry in the study area did not adequately participate in the formulation of the Livingstone IDP. The stakeholder participation mechanisms used did not yield meaningful stakeholder engagement. It led to stakeholders in the tourism sector not being influential during the formulation and implementation of the plan.The study concluded that most of the key stakeholders did not participate in the formulation of the first Livingstone IDP (2005-2010) primarily focused on tourism development and hence, its inability to be effectively implemented. This conclusion demonstrates that stakeholder participation is very critical in the entire process of formulation and implementation of the IDPs in Zambia.