The roles and challenges of women in male dominated institutions : a case study of the Zambia police 1947 to 2015.

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Mangunga, Felicitus
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The University of Zambia
This study examines the roles and challenges of women in male dominated institutions focusing on the case of Zambia Police from 1947 to 2015. The study argues that Zambia Police Service formerly known as Northern Rhodesia Police was formed in 1932 and at inception it only comprised men with no intentions of considering the inclusion of female Police officers. In 1947, the Force started employing clerks and African civilians that included twelve women. The female clerks and wives of the senior police officers helped the Force to search, guard and escort female offenders to their convenience rooms. They also came in handy when handling juvenile cases. The study further reveals that it was very important for the Force to consider the recruitment and training of female police officers and equip them with police skills as a pilot project. European women were first engaged and trained as police officers in 1955 and the African first females during 1958. The roles of these policewomen were mainly confined to clerical and administrative work and remained at the bottom rank as constables. They handled female and juvenile cases. The Force realised that the number of female offenders and juvenile cases was increasing tremendously which left it with no choice but to consider the inclusion of women and train them as police officers officially and on permanent basis. In 1966, the Force started official recruitment and training of policewomen on a permanent basis though they would not be eligible for promotion. Policewomen found it difficult to adapt to the work culture of men towards them as they were discriminated against in many ways. The policewomen were faced with a number of challenges and barriers that hindered their advancement and promotion in the police. However, after 1995 the Zambia Police Service underwent remarkable transformation that had a profound impact on roles and challenges of policewomen. This transformation led to the change of name from Police Force to Police Service because of many social units that were introduced. The social units such as Victim Support, School Liaison, Public Complaints Authority, Human Rights Commission and Police Chaplaincy transformed the Police into a service-oriented institution. The study also investigates the basis of the promotion and appointments of policewomen to key position in the Zambia Police between 1973 and 2015. The study reveals that it took a number of recommendations and regional, local and international conventions on the elimination of the discrimination against women for the Zambia Police to start the appointment of policewomen to higher ranks. The study concluded that from 1958 to 2015, policewomen contributed to the maintenance of law and order in the country. Despite the challenges they faced they were able to gain recognition and acceptance, and could be promoted to higher ranks. In 2011 and 2012, for first time in the history of Zambia Police the position of Deputy Inspector General of Police and Inspector General of Police were occupied by policewomen respectively.
Women in the workplace -- Challenges -- Zambia , Gender equality--Zambia. , Gender roles--Zambia. , Women in development--Zambia. , Women's rights--Zambia. , Sex discrimination against women--Zambia. , Women--Zambia.