An analysis of socio-economic and cultural conflict on the community emanating from the expansion of tourism in the city of Livingstone

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Shamazubaula, Victor Nathan
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University of Zambia
The purpose of the study was to investigate and analyse the socio-economic conflicts emanating from the expansion of tourism in Livingstone. The objectives of the study were to: (1) Identify the types of socio-economic and cultural conflicts (2) determine the measures put in place to control socio-economic conflicts (3) determine the challenges in reducing the socio-economic conflict in Livingstone and (4) come up with alternative measures and solutions to solve conflicts emanating from tourism industry. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The population consisted of both men and women above the age of 18 years who have lived in Livingstone for a long time and the visitors were excluded. The sample consisted of 100 respondents 32 respondents were drawn from tourism establishments and 68 were drawn from high and low cost residential areas in Livingstone. Purposive and simple random sampling procedures were used to select the sample. Since it was a qualitative study, indepth interviews and focus group discussion guides were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using MS-Excel while qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study found that the major socio-economic and cultural conflicts emanating from the expansion of tourism in Livingstone were lack of opportunity by the local people to supply or to sale agriculture products such as vegetables, milk, beef to the hotels and lodges as foreigners had their own warehouses in Livingstone City that were transported from South Africa; Salary disparities Foreign ownership and foreign exchange linkages as most of the hotels and lodges were foreign owned and locals did not benefit from anything in spite of being local citizens in terms of ownership of property; Crime rate was high as the presence of large numbers of tourists with a lot of money to spend, often carry valuables such as cameras and jewellery, which increase the attractors of criminals; Relocation of the Locals; Expensive Merchandise, where the money (kwacha) was dictated by the US dollar. Other types of socio economic conflicts included child labour, human trafficking and commercial sex exploitation. The study further found cultural conflicts such as rarely appearance of the chief in the public, imitations of Lifestyles where everyone wants to speak and dress like Americans and Britons especially youths; disturbance of the Lwiindi Traditional Ceremony where the young men who are supposed to get married have to prove their manhood by getting down into the boiling point of the Victoria Falls and get special soil and water which they take home. During this period there are a lot of tourists. The ceremony is overshadowed by tourists. The study recommends for deliberate policy on the pro-poor programs in many parts of the city of Livingstone and the surrounding areas. In addition, the community should be consulted when it comes to issues to do with tourism activities in their areas.
Master of Education in Educational Management
Tourism--Livingstone--Zambia , Tourism--Social aspect--Livingstone--Zambia