Constraints on industrialization in colonial Zambia, 1890-1964.

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Phiri, Chisulo
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The University of Zambia
This study examines the significant constraints on industrialisation (development of secondary industries) in colonial Zambia. The study argues that although a number of imperial scholars have attempted to identify the significant constraints on industrialisation during the colonial period, there are glaring gaps in these works which need to be filled up. It depicts the process of developing secondary industries in Northern Rhodesia as having been slow, painful and insignificant when compared to other countries in the region like Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. In addition, the study reveals that the origin and development of Northern Rhodesia’s industrialisation process passed through three main stages. The first stage was during the early years of colonial rule when the territory was under the British South Africa Company (BSACo) administration. The second stage was from 1924 to 1952 under the Crown government administration and the last stage was from 1953 to 1964 under both the Federal and Crown government rule. However, the year 1964 signified the end of colonial rule in Northern Rhodesia and its retrogressive economic policies. The other argument in this study is that the unfavourable and negative colonial economic policies which were enacted under the BSACo were perpetuated both under the Crown and the Federal governments. In addition, the study demonstrates that throughout the colonial period, the economic policies to which the country was subject undoubtedly limited the chances of developing local secondary industries. Even though there were numerous opportunities to set up local secondary industries in the form of import substitution industrialisation in Northern Rhodesia, they were not utilized. The successive governments in the country regarded industrial development as the endeavour of private enterprise. The steps taken by the government and industrial capital between 1953 and 1964 to tackle the constraints on industrialisation did not lead to the development of local secondary industries in the country. Lastly, this work argues that due to bad economic policies, Northern Rhodesia achieved independence in 1964 with an impoverished secondary industry sector.
Industrialization--Government policy--Zambia. , Investments, Foreign--Zambia.