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    Evaluation of mine design options for the Nkana synclinorium mining project: a case study of Mopani copper mines, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Nicacio, Hugo
    Mining method selection is one of the most critical activities of Mining engineering with the ultimate goal of maximizing profit, mineral recovery and arrive at a method with the least problems among feasible alternatives. The geology at the Synclinorium is complex with four main lithologies i.e. SOB Shale, Hanging Wall Argillite, Near Water Sediments and the Upper Quartzite, folded with variable thickness. A critical geological feature is the foliation or bedding that replicate the folding along the strike of the ore body. This poses a challenge in terms of selecting a suitable mining method for this ore body that will be less costly with high recoveries and low dilution. The main aims of the research were to select a suitable mining method, identify the current challenges encountered in the existing mining methods and carry out an economic evaluation of the Synclinorium mining project. The methodology used in data collection involved underground visits to various sections of the mine to understand the geology, rock types, orientations and geological discontinuities, current mining methods and associated challenges. Others involved a review of research works on underground mine planning and design, literature on mining method selection, mining journal and research done by Murray and Roberts and SRK consulting firms on the design. Detailed discussions on the input parameters for mine design with mine planning, geologists, geotechnical engineers, senior mining officials and cost accountants were undertaken to understand the current cost of mining. Diamond drilling and logging of borehole core was also conducted. The results gathered were then subjected to mine design criteria for selecting a mining method. In this research, University of British Colombia (UBC) mining method selection criteria, online mining method selection tool (MMST) and fuzzy dominance methods were used for the selection of a suitable mining method. These methods reviewed that, Sublevel stoping, Cut and fill, Sublevel caving and Block caving were selected in that order. However, after subjecting the selected mining methods to geotechnical, technical and economic evaluation, Sublevel Open (SLOs) stoping with fill in the anticline, Sublevel caving (SLC) in the limbs and VCR in the synclines were recommended. The current SLC and Vertical crater retreat methods require modification to address the current challenges due to hang-ups, delayed hanging wall exposure and creation of a huge void prior to hanging wall collapse as mining progresses and hole deviations in VCR at 50m that results in re-drilling and ultimately increase the costs of mining. The economic evaluation indicates that the Synclinorium mining project is viable with a projected average annual income of $340million.
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    Use of geophysics to map saline groundwater areas in rural water supply: a case study of Luangwa district, Lusaka province, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2018) Kalenda, Pascal Bukasa
    Water is finite and essential to sustaining human life. It plays a vital role in many human activities including industrial production, agriculture, energy, sanitation, and transportation, in addition to sustaining ecosystems that provide valuable services to both environment and human. The objective of this study is to map the saline groundwater area in Luangwa District through the use of geophysics survey which measures variation in the electrical resistivity of the ground. The study aims to promote the use of geophysics survey to site location where to sink boreholes with the view of minimising chances of boreholes that produce saline water. This study undertook an analysis of water samples in 16 out of the 25 suspected saline boreholes in Luangwa district. Out of the 25 boreholes suspected by MWDSEP to have saline water, 16 boreholes were randomly selected for this study. The Ministry of Water Development Sanitation and Environmental Protection database on the boreholes in Luangwa District acted as the sampling frame. Luangwa has 176 boreholes. Results showed that 14 out of the 16 sampled boreholes had saline water. Result further showed different depths at which low resistivity is prominent within the District, further underscoring the need for undertaking geophysics surveys before sinking boreholes as saline water is of no economic values resulting in loss of investment and increasing the burden on women to walk long distances to fetch fresh water. The study recommends that Government and all stakeholders in the water and sanitation sub-sector should undertake geophysics surveys before sinking boreholes, especially in basins prone to salinity.
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    The procedure of grant of mineral exploitation rights and the sustainable development of the copper mining industry in Zambia: a case study of Lumwana and Kansanshi mines.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Masase, Pamela Malama
    Sustainable development in the mining industry requires, among other things, saving and reinvesting in the industry an amount equal to what has been extracted and sold. In Zambia, the economic benefits from the mining projects are not equitably distributed among the stakeholders due to lack of involvement of all stakeholders in the process of granting mineral exploitation rights to would be investors. The stakeholders were identified as: the mining companies; the government and the host community (local authorities and local community), using the stakeholder framework and a theory of access.The main objective of the research was to evaluate whether the method of granting mineral exploitation rights influences the equitable distribution of economic benefits among the stakeholders from mining projects. The research design was a case study of Lumwana and Kansanshi Mines of the North-Western Province in Zambia. A qualitative method of study was employed. The study evaluated the following: the extent to which the current way of granting mineral exploitation rights affects the equitable distribution of economic benefits among the stakeholders from a mining project; whether a grant of mineral exploitation rights through negotiations among the stakeholders before the commencement of a mining project would be capable of bringing about the equitable distribution of economic benefits among the stakeholders; and whether there are other factors which may impinge on the equitable distribution of economic benefits from the mining projects other than the method of granting mineral exploitation rights. Data was collected by way of in-depth interviews with key informants, who consisted of employees of the two mining companies, local authorities and the central government under the Ministry of Mines. These respondents were selected purposively. Further, six focus group discussions were held with each group consisting of ten respondents drawn from the local communities. The sample size for the community members was selected using cluster sampling. Data was analysed thematically. The study revealed that the current procedure for granting mineral exploitation affects the equitable distribution of economic benefits to a great extent. The study also revealed that the equitable distribution of economic benefits was achievable through negotiations with all stakeholders before granting mining licenses. Furthermore, the study revealed that there are other factors that affect the equitable distribution of economic benefits. The study concluded by recommending that the government should revise the procedure for grant of mineral exploitation rights to include all stakeholders in a negotiation before a mining licence is granted.
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    Effects of mining operations on air and water quality in Mufulira district of Zambia : a case study of Kankonyo township.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Muma, Darius
    Air and water pollution in the Zambian Copper Mining Industry is considered to be one of the most significant environmental problems facing the communities living in and around the mining operation areas. It is quite a complex issue which cuts across various environmental, social, economic and political dimensions.This thesis highlights the effects of mining operations on air and water quality in Kankoyo area of Mufulira district. Recent investments and technological improvement in the copper mining and copper processing plants have had a significant positive impact on the capture of sulphur dioxide emissions as well as minimizing mine effluent discharges into the natural streams. However, numerous reports still cite air and water pollution in Kankoyo as one of the major environmental problems. The investigation involved sampling of the ambient air, mine effluent discharge and domestic water samples and the subsequent determination of sulphur dioxide and various water quality parameters respectively. The results obtained indicate significant reductions in terms of sulphur capture and sulphur dioxide emissions from the Copper Smelter. The average sulphur capture was 48% from 2007 to 2013 and about 94% from 2014 to 2018. The average annual sulphur dioxide emissions for 2017/2018 at 144.5µgm3 in Kankoyo Township were 15.6% above the statutory limit of 125µgm3 in ambient air (µgm3 /24hrs). The general water quality meets the allowable statutory limits despite that the water quality in this area may not only be attributed to the mining activities but also from the dilapidated water infrastructures which may be the likely source of alternative contamination. Key Words: SDGs, scientific, environment, pollution, effluent, emissions
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    Evaluation of taxation efficiency : a case study of Tanzania large scale mining sector.
    (The University of Zambia, 2021) Ngowi, Ngalla Amani
    Large Scale Mining Sector (LSMS) in Tanzania is owned by foreign investors who are operating under Mineral Development Agreements (MDAs) and in the guidance of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). The study entails to assess taxation efficiency in LSMS. The main source of revenue for public expenditure is taxation. Government of Tanzania (GOT) has ventured into allowing foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the mining sector for the purpose of ensuring that they achieve significant collections of revenues as taxes to improve the delivery of services to the public. The main problem is the failure and in some cases blatant refusal of the LSMS to pay statutory taxes to the GOT. The research is guided by three specific objectives, the first one being to determine the amounts and types of minerals mined and the amounts of taxes paid to GOT. Actual figures of taxes collected or paid were obtained from different sources of payments, including Tanzania Mineral Audit Agency (TMAA), Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA), Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM), and Mines Head Offices. All data were secondary. The second specific objective was to determine statutory types and amounts of taxes to be paid by LSMS and the cause of failure or refusal to pay taxes to GOT. This was done by going through Mining Acts and Mineral Policies of the time in question, and listing all types and amounts of taxes the LSMS were statutorily required to pay to GOT. The data was also secondary. Primary data was collected through a questionnaire in five selected mines. The sample size is 100 respondents at a rate of 20 respondents for each mine. The third specific objective was to propose or suggest what should be done to improve tax collection from LSMS. This was done by going through two scenarios, namely: literature review and referring to other countries with a success in mineral tax benefits. The significance of the study is to provide relevant information for LSMS taxpayers and GOT policy makers to merge on the understanding pertaining to tax compliance. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis (descriptive and inferential) methods were applied in analyzing the data for achieving the specific objectives one and two. From the research it has been found that the outcry is genuine. The LSMS was not paying out many, if not all, deeds they were supposed to pay. There are no genuine excuses for failure or refusal to pay their dues (taxes). Major conclusion from the research includes: LSMS in Tanzania has blatantly refused to pay Corporate/Income Tax, LSMS evaded and avoided paying taxes, Taxation Efficiency is on average (1.2 to 5 %) which is 3.10%. Operating cost was pegged at 70% of the sales value. GOT has no capability and capacity to collect mineral taxes and other mineral dues. It is recommended that Tanzania should control and manage her mineral resources so as to realize economic and social development from tax revenues by: -Publicizing MDA’s: This will enable the public to comment on them especially through the Parliament Abolishing ring fencing in all mines: This will make it easier to control costs of operating the mines. Making accounting currency to be a United States Dollar: To avoid or reduce inflation of the local currency. Implementing Mineral Resource Rent Tax Act (MRRTA): To manage production and sales of final products and hence a better taxation efficiency is achieved The study further enhances the contribution of knowledge on the respective field study whereas it serves as the foundation of knowledge for further studies in the future. There is little control for achieving true figures, be it production, pricing, expenditure and profits before tax. This study may be for a bigger area like East and Central Africa, before looking at the African Continent at large.