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- ItemEffects of mining operations on air and water quality in Mufulira district of Zambia : a case study of Kankonyo township.(The University of Zambia, 2020) Muma, DariusAir and water pollution in the Zambian Copper Mining Industry is considered to be one of the most significant environmental problems facing the communities living in and around the mining operation areas. It is quite a complex issue which cuts across various environmental, social, economic and political dimensions.This thesis highlights the effects of mining operations on air and water quality in Kankoyo area of Mufulira district. Recent investments and technological improvement in the copper mining and copper processing plants have had a significant positive impact on the capture of sulphur dioxide emissions as well as minimizing mine effluent discharges into the natural streams. However, numerous reports still cite air and water pollution in Kankoyo as one of the major environmental problems. The investigation involved sampling of the ambient air, mine effluent discharge and domestic water samples and the subsequent determination of sulphur dioxide and various water quality parameters respectively. The results obtained indicate significant reductions in terms of sulphur capture and sulphur dioxide emissions from the Copper Smelter. The average sulphur capture was 48% from 2007 to 2013 and about 94% from 2014 to 2018. The average annual sulphur dioxide emissions for 2017/2018 at 144.5µgm3 in Kankoyo Township were 15.6% above the statutory limit of 125µgm3 in ambient air (µgm3 /24hrs). The general water quality meets the allowable statutory limits despite that the water quality in this area may not only be attributed to the mining activities but also from the dilapidated water infrastructures which may be the likely source of alternative contamination. Key Words: SDGs, scientific, environment, pollution, effluent, emissions
- ItemEvaluation of taxation efficiency : a case study of Tanzania large scale mining sector.(The University of Zambia, 2021) Ngowi, Ngalla AmaniLarge Scale Mining Sector (LSMS) in Tanzania is owned by foreign investors who are operating under Mineral Development Agreements (MDAs) and in the guidance of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). The study entails to assess taxation efficiency in LSMS. The main source of revenue for public expenditure is taxation. Government of Tanzania (GOT) has ventured into allowing foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the mining sector for the purpose of ensuring that they achieve significant collections of revenues as taxes to improve the delivery of services to the public. The main problem is the failure and in some cases blatant refusal of the LSMS to pay statutory taxes to the GOT. The research is guided by three specific objectives, the first one being to determine the amounts and types of minerals mined and the amounts of taxes paid to GOT. Actual figures of taxes collected or paid were obtained from different sources of payments, including Tanzania Mineral Audit Agency (TMAA), Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA), Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM), and Mines Head Offices. All data were secondary. The second specific objective was to determine statutory types and amounts of taxes to be paid by LSMS and the cause of failure or refusal to pay taxes to GOT. This was done by going through Mining Acts and Mineral Policies of the time in question, and listing all types and amounts of taxes the LSMS were statutorily required to pay to GOT. The data was also secondary. Primary data was collected through a questionnaire in five selected mines. The sample size is 100 respondents at a rate of 20 respondents for each mine. The third specific objective was to propose or suggest what should be done to improve tax collection from LSMS. This was done by going through two scenarios, namely: literature review and referring to other countries with a success in mineral tax benefits. The significance of the study is to provide relevant information for LSMS taxpayers and GOT policy makers to merge on the understanding pertaining to tax compliance. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis (descriptive and inferential) methods were applied in analyzing the data for achieving the specific objectives one and two. From the research it has been found that the outcry is genuine. The LSMS was not paying out many, if not all, deeds they were supposed to pay. There are no genuine excuses for failure or refusal to pay their dues (taxes). Major conclusion from the research includes: LSMS in Tanzania has blatantly refused to pay Corporate/Income Tax, LSMS evaded and avoided paying taxes, Taxation Efficiency is on average (1.2 to 5 %) which is 3.10%. Operating cost was pegged at 70% of the sales value. GOT has no capability and capacity to collect mineral taxes and other mineral dues. It is recommended that Tanzania should control and manage her mineral resources so as to realize economic and social development from tax revenues by: -Publicizing MDA’s: This will enable the public to comment on them especially through the Parliament Abolishing ring fencing in all mines: This will make it easier to control costs of operating the mines. Making accounting currency to be a United States Dollar: To avoid or reduce inflation of the local currency. Implementing Mineral Resource Rent Tax Act (MRRTA): To manage production and sales of final products and hence a better taxation efficiency is achieved The study further enhances the contribution of knowledge on the respective field study whereas it serves as the foundation of knowledge for further studies in the future. There is little control for achieving true figures, be it production, pricing, expenditure and profits before tax. This study may be for a bigger area like East and Central Africa, before looking at the African Continent at large.
- ItemThe role of artisanal and small scale mining in enhancing sustainable livelihoods in Zambia.(The University of Zambia, 2022) Siaciti, NachinangaThis research aimed at investigating Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) in Zambia can play a big role in enhancing sustainable livelihoods in local and surrounding communities. Although ASM has the potential to stimulate local economic development and to promote poverty alleviation, it has failed to improve the livelihoods of its surrounding communities. The potential benefits of ASM to create sustainable livelihoods around its geographical foot print are usually lost due to lack of proper institutional and governance frameworks to provide guidance on the operation of ASM. The Mines and Minerals Development Act of 2015, only provides guidance on distinguishing ASM from large scale mining and provisions for licensing. Rural local communities desperately need to benefit from the extraction of natural capital by stimulating other social-economic activities whilst at the same time maintaining environmental and social integrity. The vast mineral wealth that Zambia has is exploited mainly through large-scale mining by the private sector whilst ASM on the other hand provides potential for ordinary Zambians to participate in mining and to create an alternative viable source of livelihood. This study was aimed at identifying the key components that can enhance sustainable livelihood options by reviewing the context of ASM, governance and community assets through a Sustainable Livelihood assessment process. Several community assets were identified such as access to clean drinking water, skills development, improved road infrastructure, environmental stewardship, access to finance that if supported can enhance sustainable livelihoods for communities around ASM activities. To enhance the development of ASM in providing livelihood options for local communities, Government requires to establish a wing dedicated to conduct gap analyses, policy formulation, implementation and alignment in the sub-sector
- ItemApplication of high precision mining as a way of optimizing loading and hauling operations at Kansanshi mining Plc, Zambia.(The University of Zambia, 2021) Katongo, KangwaMining at Kansanshi is currently conducted in two pits namely Main and North West pit. Mining at both pits is conducted by conventional open pit methods involving 18 hydraulic excavators and a mining fleet of haul 86 trucks.There has a been a general concern on the mined material tonnes (BCMs)/reconciliation and misplacements of material at Kansanshi Mining site which has led to increased mining costs as a result of: reduced truck deployment, increased truck and shovel waiting time, reduced production and reduced grade/quality of ore delivered to crushers.With the in-pit haulage distance increasing from 1335 RL to 1195 RL, there is need to address the issues causing the increase in mining cost which currently stands at US$12.4/BCMs as a matter of priority. The other problem has been on the inconsistencies of reporting fleet performances in terms of Availability and Utilisation. This has resulted into manipulation of figures by some operators. This study therefore seeks to monitor and compare the application of high precision mining through optimised loading and hauling operations. The study focuses on the optimization of haulage using High Precision Mining (HPM) through use of Wenco’s dispatching algorithm, which is designed to automatically assign trucks in order to achieve the best utilization of all mining equipment and maximize production. In order to accomplish the set objectives, the study involved establishing the precise bucket positioning, determining production rates and monitoring the material type and quality /grade of ore delivered to the crushers. With the tolerance of X=0.5m, Y=0.5m and Z=0.5m, it was noted that the events of a bucket mining out of the assigned polygon were reduced to a few cent meters in distance from 34% to 15% and from 10% to 8% in terms of mismatches and cannot reconcile bucket loads respectively. This entails a reduced mining dilution in the X and Y axis of about 85% based on the quality of ore delivered to the crushers. In terms of mining to correct elevations, a tolerance in the Z axis of ±0.3m was achieved based on the bucket size of the loading equipment. The X and Y axis tolerance was also reduced to ±0.3m for improved accuracy in between boundaries of various material types. The use of precision mining has therefore resulted in reduced mining cost of about US$10.3/BCM, improved fleet/production reporting, high grade of the material delivered to the crushers of about 75% from the previous 65%.
- ItemInvestigating the implications of the use of charcoal to process manganese on forest revenue collection : a case of Serenje district in Zambia.(The University of Zambia, 2021) Kandulu, Mercy MupetaThis study investigated the implications of using charcoal to process manganese on the amounts of forest revenue that the Forestry Department (FD) had collected from selling charcoal in Serenje District of Zambia from 2012 to 2017. Manganese processing plants commenced operations in the district in 2012 after they were issued with the Mineral Processing Licence by the Ministry of Mines and Minerals Development (MMMD). Manganese processing operations demanded huge quantities of charcoal which the FD authorised by issuing production and conveyance licences to charcoal traders. Increased charcoal demand encouraged uncontrollable harvesting of trees which caused forest degradation, affected livelihoods and threatened the existence of some rivers in the district. Government and the traditional rulers raised concerns over the negative environmental impacts and a ban on the use of charcoal to process manganese was effect in 2017. Literature from research studies, annual reports from the FD and mineral production returns from the MMMD were reviewed in order to collect information and data on forest revenues and mineral production. Fifteen (15) questionnaires were distributed to eight institutions and twelve (12) Key Informants responded by providing information and data. Data was analysed using excel. Two (2) Focus Group Discussions were conducted in communities living close to the mineral processing plants in order to obtain the general perception of the people on the subject matter. Actors along the charcoal value chain were mapped and their roles specified. Results showed that annual average revenue collected from charcoal by the FD increased from K10,600.23 (2008-2011) before the mines were introduced to K54,375.88 (2012-2016) when the mineral processing companies were authorised to use charcoal in their operations. Despite manganese processing continuing, forest revenue from charcoal reduced from K56,578.50 recorded in 2016 to K16,713 after the ban was effected in 2017. Though the revenue reduced, production of charcoal continued thereby indicating a continuation of the illegal trade. The study concluded that the use of charcoal to process manganese has potential to increase forest revenue when user industries adhere to local rules and regulations. However, failure to enforce forest laws on industrial charcoal demand promotes the informal charcoal trade to elusive markets that evade payment of government fees and contribute to forest degradation. Key Words: Forest revenue, manganese, mineral processing, Serenje District