Language and Social sciences Education

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    An analysis of the causes of grade twelve pupils’ low performance in literature in english in selected secondary schools of Lusaka district of Zambia.
    (2024) Akakulubelwa, Akakandelwa
    The study investigated the causes of low performance among twelfth-grade students in Literature in English within three selected secondary schools in Lusaka District. Three objectives were addressed: to review the performance of pupils in Literature in English at School A, B and C of Lusaka Central Zone from 2020 to 2022; to establish the views of teachers, examiners, and learners on factors contributing to pupil’s low performance in Literature; and to determine the challenges and prospects of literature as a subject in secondary schools. The study's ontological aim was to ascertain the reality of teaching literature in secondary schools by examining factors influencing low performance. Employing a qualitative approach, the research utilized a descriptive research design and collected primary data through questionnaires and interview guides. The study's paradigm was constructivism, aiming to construct views on literature through qualitative research. Purposive sampling was employed, selecting ten teachers/examiners and thirty students from three schools in Lusaka Central Zone. Thematic analysis was used to analyze gathered data, addressing three objectives: reviewing pupils' performance in Literature in English from 2020 to 2022, exploring stakeholders' views on factors contributing to low performance, and determining literature's challenges and prospects in secondary education. The study revealed a pattern of low academic performance in English literature compared to other elective subjects like Additional Mathematics and Physics. It identified challenges such as lack of motivation, inadequate learning resources, absence of visual aids, and insufficient counseling contributing to poor performance. Additionally, factors such as absenteeism, disinterest, peer pressure, academic procrastination, time management, and academic overload were found to affect performance adversely. Despite adherence to recommended teaching schedules and qualified instructors, variations in teaching effectiveness, novel selection, and delivery methods were observed among schools. Novel selection criteria were based on recommendations by the Examination Council of Zambia, novel availability, and complexity. The study recommended incorporating visual aids in teaching literature and providing motivation to both teachers and students to enhance academic performance.
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    Internal strategies and mechanisms of combating corruption: the nolle prosequi phenomenon in Zambia.
    (International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Studies, 2022) Phiri, Chidongo
    This article examines internal mechanism and strategies of fighting corruption at Konkola Copper mines (KCM) in Zambia. The study used the Nolle prosequi [The unwilling to pursue in Latin] law of the Criminal procedure Code (CPC) of Zambia to examine the weaknesses in the strategy and mechanisms of combating corruption. The commonly held understanding of the Nolle prosequi phenomenon by the Zambian people is that it is corruption in form of racketeering and abuse of authority by the state prosecutors and business executives. From observation, one issue affecting the attainment of the sustainable development goals in Zambia is the selective enforcement of the Nolle prosequi law contained in the CPC. Of particular concern is an assumption that evoking the Nolle prosequi law of the penal code, Chapter 87 of the laws of Zambia and the international law on corruption has not helped to reduce corruption but exacerbated it. Theoretically , the concept of Social Justice as represented in the writings of Amartia Sen, (1999) guided this article with emphasis placed on the notion of human capabilities key components in his social justice conception. Sen, contends that inequality discourages the healthy economic activities that shatters development processes (1999:75). To avoid this, Sen suggests the need for political freedom which guarantees economic development and good governance practice. The researcher argues that this can be achieved with fair enforcement of the Nolle prosequi law. Unfortunately, those affected by it have no much choice to contribute to the reduction of corruption because of not being members of the inner network social relations at KCM. Methodologically, this article is based on library research though the large part of it involves interviews to those offered criminal amnesty by the prosecutors in entering Nolle prosequi. The argument in this article is that failure to analyse Nolle prosequi within prisms of social relations reduces the chance for eliminating Corruption at KCM in Zambia. This is because, a much closer examination of Nolle prosequi in content and practice gives the reasons of why the law is misapplied hence corruption persistence at KCM in Zambia.
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    The social act of exchange in power relations: the study of the phenomenon of nichekeleko at the weighbridges in Zambia.
    (CODESRIA, 2017) Phiri, Chidongo
    This article examines the widely practiced phenomenon of Nichekeleko at the Weighbridges (WBs) in Zambia. The commonly held understanding of Nichekeleko by the Zambian people is that, it is corruption; ranging from bribery, theft, embezzlement, gratification to favouritism. Sociologically, the phenomenon was conceived as a social act of exchange within the context of power relations by the actors who engage in it. Foucault’s notion of power relations and Bourdieu’s concepts of “practice” and “fields’’ provided the theoretical framework for the study. Power was considered as a system, and a network of relations, encompassing the whole society than a relation between the oppressed and the oppressor. Methodologically, this study was based on mixed method research; the large part of it involving participant- observation, interviews and administering of questionnaires The argument in this paper is that failure to analyse corruption from a linguistic and philosophical perspective implied in ‘Nichekeleko’ reduces the practice to mere violation of the law or moral rules. A much closer look at corruption from a language vantage point provides us with essential dimensions of the practice, why, and how it has persisted in Zambia Key words: Corruption, Nichekeleko, Power relations, Social act of Exchange, Practice
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    Internal strategies and mechanisms for combating corruption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zambia: a linguistic turn.
    (Journal of anti-corruption law, 2021) Phiri, Chidongo
    This article analyses internal strategies and mechanisms in Zambia that have triggered corruption challenges during the Covid-19 pandemic. In doing so, it focuses on a localised practice known as the bineyi phenomenon and adopts John Law’s actor network theory (ANT) as an analytical prism. Bineyi is a colloquial word in Nyanja which refers to favours in exchange for funds from individuals and government officials. Simply, Bineyi entails a system of business social networking in which influential businesspeople seek to gain favours. These social systems are dimensions and units of actions of individuals, and their roles as plausible human activities. ANT, in turn, is a social science approach which assumes networks of social relations and structures that are dynamic. ANT is used in this article to draw attention to the intimate associations between interactants, as well as their attributes, capacities and activities, that weaken mechanisms to deter corruption during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methodologically, the article is based on qualitative research involving interviews, observation and documentary analysis. The article proposes a twofold approach to reducing corruption. The article suggests that information provided by those convicted of corruption and dismissed from the public service should be made available to the general public, and that the bineyi concept and practice during the Covid-19 pandemic should be redefined into local understanding. This would illustrate the broad complementary role that political, judicial and traditional leadership institutions have in the fight against corruption.
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    Responding to challenges in tourism in the era of climate change in Zambia.
    (International Journal of Education and Social Science Research, 2023-03) Kaiko Mubita, Inonge Milupi, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Pauline Namakau Monde, Akombelwa Muyangana, Steriah M. Simooya and Chidongo Phiri
    Tourism is a vital driver of the global economy, Zambia inclusive. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the direct contribution of travel and tourism to world GDP in 2012 was US$ 2.1 trillion. However, the tourism sector is highly vulnerable to climate change. This is because tourism depends on environmental resources while climate defines the length and quality of tourism seasons. At the same time, tourism contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), the cause of global warming. Many types of tourism in Zambia are weather dependent and by extension, climate dependent. It is, therefore, very likely that climate change may affect tourism sector in Zambia. Climate change can reduce, increase and prolong heat waves or change the patterns of annual rainfall received in Zambia. Using literature review, this paper presents direct impacts and indirect impacts of climate change to the tourism sector and also proposes response strategies to climate change mitigation and adaptation in the Zambian context. Responses such as mainstreaming ESD, teacher education, research engagement, community-based approach, sustainability education among others are proposed.