The dynamics of a colonial process: A comparative study of Ukraine(1648-1730) and Bulozi (1864-1911)

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Beyani, Choolwe
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Colonialism is historical process that had demonstrated unique but similar features in the different epochs of human history. The different processes of colonialism have been objects of study for a long time. Taking the cases of Ukraine and Bulozi, this dissertation compares the colonial processes in these two different countries as they occured under different times and conditions. The colonial process in each of the two countries was set in motion by internal and external contradictions affecting both the colonisers and the colonised.But emphasizing on the colonised countries themselves, the study shows that the internal contradictions in the colonies that led to revolutions to overthrow alien rule set forth a series of crises that led to internal political instability. This instability was a result of serious dynastic rivalries within the ranks of the ruling classes. The looming external threat posed by the ambitions of rival imperialist powers complimented the internal crises thus compelling Ukraine and Lozi rulers to each seek protection of a stronger ally among the imperialist powers. And this led to a signing of treaties of protection in 1654 in Ukraine and 1890 in Bulozi with Russia and Britain respectively. The signing of the treaties of protection became the basis for the establishment of the relations of co-operation between the colonies and the colonisers. This relationship was marked by a large measure of mutual co-operation as this was a period in which colonial interests could not be immediately realised. The policy of co-operation was perpetuated in both cases by political and administrative weaknesses of the colonial powers, and the fears of possible internal revolts should undue colonial pressure be applied. The transformation of the relations of co-operation (1654-1709 in Ukraine, and 1889-1900 in Bulozi) was the product of determined colonial policy and the unequal power relations between the colonisers and the colonised. Other contributing factors were: the dynastic factionalism of the local ruling classes which gave room for policies of divide and rule,imperialist rivalries that worked to the detriment of the colonised, and deliberate economic and political pressure that undermined the independent statehood of Ukraine and Bulozi. These factors contributed to the transformation.Treaty conditions were changed to suit colonial interests, while internal factional splits militated against organised resistance, and also led to corruption and buying of large sections of the local aristocracies by the colonial powers.Between 1709 and 1730 in Ukraine, and 1900 and 19ll in Bulozi, the process of colonial domination had become established. This was achieved by the strengthening of the colonised state apparatus so as to weaken the power of Ukraine and Lozi ruling classes. A vicious economic policy was embarked upon in each country to exploit and dominate the resources of these countries. This took the form of tax and labour demands upon the local populations, and also the control and domination of the means of production and exchange. The collapse of Lozi and Ukrainian economic and political independence inevitably led to loss of the independence of the ideological state apparatus. The ideological institutions of these colonies, namely religion and education, were either subjugated or replaced, thus allowing the colonial ideologies to be dominant. By the end of the period under study,Ukraine and bulozi had lost independent statehood. The ruling classes and their countries became appendages of the wider colonial empires.
Imperialism- -Ukraine , Imperialism- -Bulozi , Ukraine- -Colonisation , Bulozi- -Colonisation